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扎克伯格转向,Facebook将变得越来越像微信 | 焦点分析

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美国青少年正在以惊人的速度抛弃Facebook。


|尹珺婕

图片来源|东方IC


作为全球最成功的社交产品,Facebook已经走过15年。它的成功源于展现了一种开放性,当扎克伯格在哈佛大学的学校宿舍里敲出第一行代码,把麻省理工、斯坦福、波士顿大学等其他高校学生的社交状态和个人信息联结起来,Facebook才有了快速扩展的可能。

这种开放广场的产品定位,支撑它在全球拿下27亿月活用户。但现在,这家公司打算转向私域社交,变得越来越像私人客厅。

3月7日,Facebook首席执行官马克·扎克伯格发布了一篇3200 多字的博文,宣布该公司将进行一项战略转型:关注的重点将从基于广泛受众的社交网络,转变成在短时间内小群体交流的社交网络。

扎克伯格在文中称,这个转变是要构建“注重私域沟通的通讯工具和社交网络平台”,产品准则包括以私人互动为基础、信息加密、允许内容自动过期销毁、互通性和安全数据存储。

改革的重点是Facebook的三个全资应用。该公司旗下的所有消息应用,WhatsApp、Facebook Messenger和Instagram DM ,都将进行端到端加密(此前只有WhatsApp是端到端加密的),包括Facebook也无法获取用户信息。这三个应用的后台也会被打通,实现用户跨平台收发消息,未来一同将被打通的可能还会有 Android 手机自带的短信系统。

“大众广场”变“私人客厅”

转型计划的背后,是扎克伯格对未来社交趋势的判断。他认为,人们开始迫切需要更为私密的空间,短时消息和小型群体是迄今为止增长最快的在线交流领域。根据研究公司App Annie发布的年度“移动状态”报告,去年9月,WhatsApp首次在Android和iPhone平台上的全球每月活跃用户数超过Facebook的同名应用程序。WhatsApp已经成了Facebook最受欢迎的即时通讯工具。

另外,Instagram、WhatsApp、Facebook三款社交应用都各具特色,这为Facebook公司成功覆盖了不同的人群,但他们也逐渐各自为政。根据投资公司Piper Jaffray最新的一项调查,美国青少年正在以惊人的速度抛弃Facebook,集体转向使用Instagram,Facebook在年轻人中受喜欢的程度在逐步下降,Instagram在逐步上升。

打通旗下社交产品的后台,其实是Facebook公司试图用私域社交重新建立这三款应用的纽带,整合用户群体,发挥规模效应。

但由扎克伯格来公开谈论私域社交多少有些尴尬,这种尴尬从剑桥分析丑闻爆发,小扎西装革履出席美国国会听证会就开始了。很多人并不认为Facebook有能力甚至有意愿建立这样一个基于隐私的平台,过去一年不断发酵的数据安全问题使得很多用户丧失了对该公司的耐心和信心。

隐私安全已经造成了严重的信任危机,如果不从这个痛点着手变革,该公司不管做什么都会因为隐私问题而束手束脚。

“私人客厅”的商业模式

转向私域通讯将不利于Facebook进行数据收集,势必会降低广告投放的效率,而这恰恰又会极大影响广告主投放的积极性,进而影响到Facebook非常重要的广告营收。

扎克伯格给出的解决方案听上去很像是在向微信看齐。他在文章中提出,将会以开发WhatsApp的方式来构建这个平台,可以实现呼叫、视频聊天、群组、支付等功能,成为私有服务的平台。

Facebook的未来,可以从微信社交平台服务化的路线进行设想。它可能也会孵化出内容、支付和开放平台,用衣食住行、金融等场景搭建起生态系统。用户在这个以平台上可以实现购物、打车、叫外卖、买电影票等功能。平台则可以实现广告收入以外的营收增长,如游戏、支付、对入驻平台的第三方进行投资等等。

但Facebook想要复制微信并非易事。首先,整合三个平台的数据量十分庞大,一旦泄露将会造成无法挽回的后果。对于这类社交平台的数据安全,马化腾曾公开表示:“在我们的平台里面,大量全部都是人和人之间的通信、社交行为数据,如果说数据可以任意打通,给公司业务部门或者给外部的客户用,那是会带来灾难性的后果。”

其次,要想做生态,Facebook需要与其他企业签订协议,通过其平台提供服务。国外因其成熟的信用卡系统以及对个人信息隐私的担忧,绝大部分用户对于社交网络上的交易会更保守,推进起来会受到不小的阻力。

对此,Facebook已经有所行动了。根据纽约时报援引相关人士消息,Facebook正在研发一款加密货币,代币名称FBC,旨在允许用户在其消息系统直接向联系人汇款,如同PayPal的线上跨境汇款交易那样。有媒体分析,FBC 的发行主要是Facebook为了用户即时支付的需求,将有可能打开Facebook一直没有机会进入的支付市场。

Facebook可能还会面临着一些国家的抵制,包括俄罗斯和越南在内的国家要求科技平台在本地存储用户数据。但是扎克伯格在博文中表示:“在某些国家存储人们的数据并不是建立互联网基础设施的安全基础”、“我们不会在有侵犯人权记录的国家建立数据中心”。如果坚持这些原则,意味着Facebook未来将在一些国家受阻,或者无法在短期内进入其他国家。

对于这些改革会面临的问题,Facebook下一步将会与世界各地的专家、行业合作伙伴、政府进行协商,确保这些改革的措施可以合理进行。不过,在这场改革中,用户似乎没有什么话语权。



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