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致敬与悼念:褚橙的意识形态

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作者:迟宇宙

来源:商业人物(ID:biz-leaders)


2019年3月5日,一代传奇企业家、曾经的“中国烟草大王”、“褚橙”创始人褚时健因病医治无效去世,享年91岁。“衡量一个人成功的标准,不是看这个人站在顶峰的时候,而是看这个人从顶峰上跌落低谷之后的反弹力。”褚时健的一生跌宕起伏,是国内众多企业家心中的企业家。当我们缅怀褚时健时,我们缅怀的是一个劫后归来再次奏响生命强音的老者,是一种稀缺的企业家精神,一种全新的意识形态。今天我们决定推送一篇旧文,希望读者们能再次从褚时健那里获得智慧和力量。


1997年1月30日,柳传志在联想集团骨干员工会上进行了一次绝密讲话。他点评了曾经红极一时的企业家,说万润南不看大局势,头脑膨胀,史玉柱则是抢在局势前头,“大的形势没有分析清楚”;褚时健在个人经济上犯了错误,造成了锒铛入狱的结局。“我们自己不摔跟头,我们总得看人家为什么摔跟头。我们总得把这些问题分析清楚。”他说。


十几年后,当“褚橙柳桃”成为一种生活时尚的时候,他又告诉访问者:“他在企业界应该讲是一个下金蛋的母鸡,这样的企业家其实是很难能可贵的,我当时在很公开的场合讲,我觉得国家也有值得反省的地方,怎么样能够产生更多的下金蛋的鸡,另外怎么去爱护这些鸡。”


褚橙柳桃潘苹果


多年来柳传志对褚时健的评价并未发生本质改变。他曾与褚时健有过一次接触,了解褚时健早年间曾在一个负债累累的烟厂工作,还曾到底下看烟叶。“他比我大十几岁,已经让我非常敬佩了。”他觉得自己的名字能够与褚时健并列,是一种真正的荣幸。


多年以后,他依旧相信褚时健身上充满了企业家精神。“后来知道褚时健先生出事了也很感叹,我记得是张维迎打过一个比方,说好比是一个寺庙里的和尚给佛爷上香的油,因为菜里的油不够,挖了一勺做菜吃了。不管怎么样,反正动了不该动的东西,这个应该受到批评甚至处罚。”他说。


今日的中国,对于褚时健身陷囹圄的往事,人们正在进行更加公允的判断。反复的斟酌、揣摩与猜测、复盘般的计算之后,人们的判断与褚时健当日辩护律师马军的观点越来越接近——


“当时企业家激励机制与监督体制的不健全葬送了他的政治和职业生命,他的错误有不可回避的历史和制度原因。……褚时健是在不该拿钱的时候,拿了他应该拿的钱。”


1999年1月9日,云南省高级人民法院一审判处褚时健无期徒刑


时代已经改变,人们已经不再将那些“拿了他应该拿的钱”的企业家当作“犯罪分子”。他们的确犯了错误,但他们并不应该为此付出如此惨烈的代价。他们只是选错了自己的人生道路,并且人们都知道,当日的他们,或许根本都没有选择的机会。


人们开始对褚时健重新充满敬意。这一次,人们并不是因为他的过往,不是因为他曾经使“红塔山”成为红极一时的烟草品牌,使红塔集团成为烟草业的龙头,而是对一位跌倒之后重新崛起的老人的尊敬。在融合了尊敬、同情、悲悯和感慨之后,人们意识到,褚时健“复活”了,他的形象不再模糊、灰暗,而是重新变得高大、伟岸。


1999年,褚时健被判处无期徒刑,剥夺政治权利终身(后减刑为17年)。那年他71岁。2002年,他因糖尿病办理保外就医,那年他74岁。他沅江河谷的家已经支离破碎,女儿褚映群已经在狱中自缢身亡,儿子褚一斌不知流落何方。陪伴他的只有老妻和不知几何的风烛残年。


他当年构建的烟草帝国正在走向衰落,“红塔山”不再是一个值得骄傲的品牌,早已“泯然众人”。曾经的雄图霸业,如今变成一场春梦。年逾古稀的老人,只想找到一个地方聊度残生,打发余年。



他选择了哀牢山。他与老伴儿在那里承包了2000亩荒地种果树。那是一处“鸟不拉屎”的荒山,又刚遭遇过泥石流。褚时健带着老伴儿和农具钻到山里,一呆就是十几年。没什么人关注他。当年只有寥寥数家媒体报道了他“复出”的消息。


有一些人倒还记得他。那一年,万科的王石到云南时顺道前往致敬。他眼前并没有一个风烛残年的老人,也没有一个牟其中般的枭雄,而是一个面色黝黑但健康开朗的农民。据说他们在一起没谈一句企业管理,褚时健向王石介绍的都是果园、气候、果苗的长势,以及如何打理这2000亩果园。


王石后来感慨地说:“我非常受启发。褚时健居然承包了2000多亩地种橙子。橙子挂果要6年,他那时已经75岁了。想象一下,一个75岁的老人,戴一个大墨镜,穿着破圆领衫,兴致勃勃地跟我谈论橙子挂果是什么情景。2000亩橙园和当地的村寨结合起来,带有扶贫的性质,而且是环保生态。虽然他境况不佳,但他作为企业家的胸怀呼之欲出。我当时就想,如果我遇到他那样的挫折、到了他那个年纪,我会想什么?我知道,我一定不会像他那样勇敢。”


十年后,“勇敢者游戏”玩家褚时健种出的冰糖橙风靡了整个中国。因由本来生活网,“褚橙”成为一个时尚词汇。本来生活网的创始人喻华峰有着与褚时健相似的经历,他们都曾因为时代、制度、历史以及错综复杂、阴差阳错的因素而身陷囹圄。他们惺惺相惜。他们握了手,为“褚橙”进行了命名,赋予了“褚橙”生命和意义。


人们开始重新关注“烟王”到“橙王”的转变,依旧用庸俗的观点和谄媚的话语,就像他们曾经描述“亚洲第一烟厂厂长”时一样。他们讲述他怎样在远离都市的大山里艰苦创业,怎样解决土壤结构,发明独特的混合农家肥,解决灌溉问题、病虫害问题以及口感问题等等;他们还褒奖他如何进行技术创新,“想办法控制橙的口感,他让果农把每一棵果树剪得只剩260朵花左右,让一棵树的精华都集中在这260个左右的果子里”。



只有感同身受的“南都案”主犯喻华峰知道,“褚橙”和褚时健真正值得褒奖的是什么。


他和我们都相信,褚时健代表了一种强大的精神力量,他使“褚橙”成为一种意识形态,类似于海明威《老人与海》中圣地亚哥的意识形态:


“一个人并不是生来要被打败的,你尽可以把他消灭掉,可就是打不败他。”


“要保持头脑清楚,要懂得怎么才能受苦也像个男子汉的样子。”


“每一回都是重新来过的一回,他做的时候决不想从前做的成绩。”


褚时健和喻华峰代表着一种全新的意识形态,代表着一种顽强的希望和不灭的向心力与生命力。他们同时也意味着我们告别了毫无选择的年代,当一种生命形态终结的时候,可以选择另一种生命形态重新崛起。他们的际遇和重新崛起,也再次证明,那个将企业家的贡献与尸骨一同埋葬的年代真的一去不返了。


今天,当王石、柳传志他们,当喻华峰他们,当一个个普通人重新审视和认知当年那个“犯罪分子”的时候,人们意识到,“褚橙”不只是一种水果的名称,而是一种意识形态。它意味着纯净的内心世界、强大的精神力量,也意味着人们在面对昏暗与残酷的时候,在不断跌倒甚至一无所有的时候,依旧可以充满希望地活下去。


对于充满不确定性的未来而言,对于身处无限迷惘的我们来说,这是一个最好的励志故事,比所有的“美国梦”、“福布斯英雄传说”都要好的励志故事。它曾经是一个血淋淋的、如今是一个活生生的“中国故事”。正是对那个血淋淋的“中国故事”的复盘,才使我们意识到目下这个活生生的“中国故事”如此可贵。


*图片购自视觉中国


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